Calculating National and Religious Holidays for Your Project Schedule

In November, 2014 I began an annual tradition: I collected a list of commonly observed national and religious holidays for the coming calendar year, and suggested that those holidays observed by the project team be accounted for as non-working days in project schedules for the coming year. But it’s time to remove myself from the equation: I’ve prepared an Excel workbook that will calculate my (now expanded) list of national and religious holidays, from 2021 through 2030.

How it Works

Many holidays are observed on a specific date, such as Canada Day. Organizations that observe these holidays usually have their own rules for what day to take off when they occur on a weekend, so excepting US Independence Day and Christmas, I don’t try to predict whether Friday or Monday will be non-working. Other holidays are based on relative dates such as third Monday of January, like Martin Luther King’s Birthday. In a couple of cases, the authorities added a wrinkle, such as last Monday in August. Others are based on a Lunar calendar; rather than try to calculate Lunar New Year or Passover, I created a look-up table and populated it through 2030.

Download the workbook using the link at the bottom of this page. Then enter the year you want to schedule for in the cell at the top of the Holidays tab, highlighted in orange.

Change Working Time in MS Project

Navigation depends on which version of project you are using. In Microsoft Project 2007, under the Tools menu, select Change Working Time.  In Project 2010 and later, on the Project tab, select Change Working Time.  You can then enter the holidays under the Exceptions tab.  Note that Exception days appear in the calendar in blue; however, if you have selected one of the exception dates, as shown in the example below, the date will appear in red.  Scheduled non-working days appear in gray.  Note that you can also make an exception of a scheduled non-working day, so that it appears to be a working day.  Use this feature carefully – having some of the team working over a weekend can easily throw off the scheduled for the entire team.

Creating a Custom Calendar

You can also create custom calendars, if your team is spread across multiple countries with different holidays. Again, the version of Microsoft Project you are using makes a difference in navigation. In Project 2007, under the Tools menu, select Change Working Time. In Project 2010 or later, on the Project tab, select Change Working Time. Click the Create New Calendar button in the upper right. Give the new calendar a meaningful name, then click the Make a copy of radio button. Select the Standard calendar from the pull-down list. Then click OK.

At this point, you can add the dates you want to mark as exceptions to the working calendar.  Enter the Name, Start, and Finish dates. Then click the Details button. Click the Working Times radio button.  The default working hours will appear; change them only if necessary.

Click OK to return to your custom calendar and enter the non-working dates that apply. Then assign each team member to the appropriate calendar using the Resource Sheet, in the column labeled Base.

Scheduling with Multiple Calendars

While it can be helpful to have MS Project automagically re-schedule after you make a change, be cognizant of what can happen when you have a summary task involving team members using different calendars. A change of one day in one detail task can cause the summary task completion date to change by two or more days. Scrutinize the results before you publish them, and investigate anything that seems wrong.

Once your career has progressed beyond managing a few folks co-located in one cube farm, your ability to think globally and manage a geographically distributed team will be key to how far you can go. Develop your multi-cultural knowledge, awareness, and communication skills, and when someone is needed to manage a project that crosses borders, you’ll be ready.

Waterfall, Agile, and Death Marches

I’ve grown weary of internet debates about software development methodology, argued by people who don’t really understand the vocabulary they use. Allow me to provide a brief lesson on three of the most commonly misused terms.

The Origins of the Epithet “Waterfall”

A little history: Winston Royce is attributed with defining the methodology now called “waterfall” in his 1970 paper, Managing the Development of Large Software Systems although that term never appears in the paper. Royce was offering his opinion on what worked and what didn’t work after nine years of software project experience. While software for internal use could get by with just analysis and coding, paying customers needed a more rigorous approach. However, Royce argued against using a purely sequential process for developing software. In his paper, he critiqued several diagrams, beginning with the one below.

Royce noted that the lack of feedback between the sequential activities was a fatal flaw, but that the feedback flows had to be managed in order to avoid runaway scope. He explored several other diagrams in his paper, which became progressively more complicated until they resembled a spaghetti-and-meatballs dinner for sixty or so. Plainly, feedback was necessary but it was possible to become paralyzed.

The earliest use of waterfall in referring to a software development model may have been in a 1976 paper on software requirements by Bell and Thayer, which referred to Royce’s paper. During the 1980’s, there were several “structured” software project management methodologies marketed by various consulting firms that looked much like the more complex diagrams in Royce’s paper, but no one has actually used any of those methodologies for decades. None of them called their methodologies waterfall, either.

Time Marches On

Technology has changed dramatically in the last half-century. Where the primary cost constraint in 1970 was computing time, it is now knowledge-worker time. Where the primary technical challenges were data storage and code efficiency (does anyone remember dates with two-digit years?), storage and retrieval technology now provides terabytes for the price of a good dinner, free relational databases, structured and ad hoc queries that return results in milliseconds, and a global network with connections to tens of billions of processors. As a result, the nature of software products has changed from calculations of orbital mechanics and industrial controls, written by and for large corporations and government agencies to (overly) personal communications and videos of cats, paid for with marketing messages.

In Royce’s era, programmers and users submitted Hollerith cards and (maybe) a day later scanned the results on 132-column green-bar paper. Today, users have the expectation of point, click, fill-it-in-for-me, and tell-me-what-to-correct. Where once coders spent most of their time writing code to detect and handle logic breaks and invalid inputs, they now focus on the presentation layer. No one optimizes for memory usage, and execution speed only becomes a concern when responses are returned in more than two seconds. There are standards for virtually everything, reducing the effects of obsolescence, and a global communication network that facilitates collaboration across and between continents and cultures.

Software development today bears as little resemblance to 1970 as modern agriculture does to Mesolithic-era farming in the Fertile Crescent twelve millennia ago. But there are still farmers and there are still programmers, and the micro-economics of production still apply. And the same seven activities identified in Royce’s diagram are still needed, even if we organize and execute them differently.

Agile is Not a Performance Characteristic

Most modern software development organizations will tell you that they use agile methods. The term refers to the Agile Manifesto, composed by seventeen thought leaders at a conference on lightweight software development methods in 2001. While there are several software development methodologies marketed as “agile,” in most organizations “agile” is a synonym for Scrum. Other common “agile” methods include Kanban, XP, and DSDM. Each of them addresses the seven basic activities, although the level of detail varies widely.

Note that “agile” in this context is a label, rather than a performance characteristic. While many organizations use these methods (or combinations of them) effectively to produce reliable, maintainable software that creates real value, many others flounder. An entire industry of consultants and trainers offer their services to those who want to succeed with agile methods. Many of these experts (and their students) disparage what they assert are “non-agile” approaches with the generic epithet “waterfall.” That doesn’t make them so.

Complexity Requires an Even More Rigorous Approach

As noted, the Agile Manifesto arose from a conference on lightweight methods. While that certainly describes much of modern software development, many software projects require compliance with a variety of contractual, legal, and regulatory requirements, in addition to functional and technical requirements. These complex projects tend to include a lot of requirements elicitation, analysis, and design tasks that must be finalized by people who are not coders before decision makers will give their approval to proceed with actual coding. Because of these controls and process requirements, numerous parallel workflows by people who are not coders, critical decisions that often have nothing to do with code or coders, and the higher cost and longer duration of complex projects, they are typically managed using predictive methods—in other words, estimating task duration in advance, in order to schedule activities so that knowledge workers who are not coders can manage their workflows.

Complex projects include most government-funded projects, most projects for heavily-regulated businesses, and nearly all products in the medical devices or aerospace industries. Agile methods are used for some project activities, in parallel or in series with other activities using other approaches, when it makes sense to do so. People who don’t understand (and don’t care to understand) anything about these external controls and processes often dismiss them as command and control or waterfall or some other epithet. The rest of us understand that you have to skin a rabbit before putting it over the fire—see “Payne, Podrick” for an illustrative misuse case.

Death Marches Aren’t About Methodology

A project should be approved based on a specific business case, with parameters such as a scope, delivery schedule, budget, a staffing model, and performance and quality goals that are realistic. Ed Yourdon defined a death march project as, “One whose ‘project parameters’ exceed the norm by at least 50 percent.”

Acme Tornado KitThe business case should be updated whenever the business environment changes or assumptions prove to be invalid. An oversight committee should meet periodically to assess progress and risks, along with the probability of achieving the goals in the business case. This committee should be empowered to adjust any of the aforementioned parameters, and even to cancel the project outright if it seems necessary. Thus, death marches are not a failure of methodology but a failure of project governance.

Although there are still many organizations that will continue death march projects even in the face of evidence that the project will fail to achieve the intended business goals, few of them are profitable and essentially all of them have other bad management habits. In the words of Eric Bogle, “… year after year, their numbers get fewer. Someday no one will march there at all.”

The Project Manager’s Bookshelf: Business Acumen

PMI Talent TriangleI began this series with a few books that I recommend for developing people skills, then followed up with a list of books on technical skills. This week focuses on developing business acumen, closing with books on procurement and basic business law.

Project management is a business function, even if you’re managing software development or moving your internally hosted enterprise applications to the cloud. Business acumen is a bit like Justice Potter Stewart’s comment on pornography—hard to define, but you know it when you see it. There are a few foundational knowledge areas that support development of acumen, and I’ve covered some of them here. But you also need to read business news—I like The Economist for general content on the business environment, but also find a source that focuses on your industry. Read your company’s financial reports and communications to investors, as well as Mary Meeker’s Internet Trends Report. And ask your boss’s boss what she reads.

Finance and Accounting

If you have an undergraduate or graduate business education, you can safely skip this section. For everyone else, this is a vocabulary and an understanding of processes that you need to acquire, even if you don’t completely master it.

Accounting: A Beginner’s Guide to Understanding Financial & Managerial Accounting by John Kent. If you’ve never taken any accounting course, at least get familiar with the vocabulary of financial and management accounting. This is a very basic intro.

Financial Statements: A step-by-Step Guide to Understanding and Creating Financial Reports Third Edition by Thomas Ittelson. You need to be able to understand and ask questions about your company’s finances. This book will introduce you to the income statement, cash flow statement, and balance sheet.

Discounted Cash Flow Modeling for Project Financing: A Step-by-Step Instruction by Monique Young.  Good coverage of a moderately complex topic, although the author needs to be introduced to a good editor. Focus is how to implement a model in Excel. Less than $5.00 in Kindle version.

Strategy and Competition

Project managers are given the responsibility for implementing business strategy. Not every project is strategic, but if you aspire to manage those high-visibility, career-making strategic projects, you need to understand the nature of competition and how business strategy is developed to compete in complex markets.

Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors by Michael E. Porter. Explains the three generic strategies—lowest cost, differentiation, and focus—and shows how competitive advantage links to profitability.

Business Strategy: A Guide to Effective Decision-making by Jeremy Kourdi. This is a bit basic, but it’s well-written, as you’d expect from The Economist. From understanding what strategy is to how strategies are developed, to implementation—where project managers come into the picture. Lots of brief examples, not detailed enough to be called case studies, but still illustrative.

Marketing

Every organization delivers products or services, and most deliver both. The means and channels of marketing has evolved dramatically in the last two decades, and a large part of business acumen is understanding how the relationship between the organization and it’s customers is initiated, developed, and maintained.

Customer Centricity, Second Edition by Peter Fader. The customer is not always right, although the right customer is always right. Fader gave us permission to focus on the customers whose business is profitable for us and send the rest somewhere else. Lots of examples, success stories, and a few horror stories.

Social Media Marketing Mastery 2020: 3 Books in 1 by Robert Miller. These three books cover branding and how to be an influencer through Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube, and how to “Win followers and influence millions” using Instagram. Welcome to the third decade of the 21st century.

Procurement and Business Law

I am not an attorney. But from years of experience in procurement and contract negotiation, I’ve come to appreciate the value of a basic understanding of business law in formulating good questions that attorneys can answer.

How to Write an RFP and Manage an RFP Project by E.B. Diamond. A guide to preparing a request for proposal and managing the competitive bidding process. Note that this presents a commercial point of view; government agencies will have a detailed and usually rigorous process for procuring goods and services. As much about project management as it is about preparing RFP’s.

Business Law by Robert W. Emerson. Part of the Barron’s Business Review series, this covers US law. If you’ve never taken any kind of business law course, this is a decent self-study text. That said, at 974 pages, it isn’t an easy read. The first three chapters introduce a lot of history and vocabulary. Definitely read chapters 4, 5, and 8 on contracts, and after that, you should skip around to the topics that matter to you.

In Closing

I’ve suggested books on a wide range of topics in this series. While I don’t expect anyone to read all of them, I hope this series has led you to think about how these knowledge areas fit into your personal development plan.